Massimiliano Panarari

The digital Leviathan and the soft new totalitarism



The crisis of political representation and liberal democracies offers one of the most investigated topic, both on an academic side and a cultural and political perspective (at large). Some books recently published – coming from a variety of approaches and orientations – suggest the idea of a «Soft New Totalitarianism» related to the digital revolution. And the birth of a «Tech-Leviathan» at the confluence of Surveillance Capitalism, biopower, postdemocracy and restrictions of personal freedom. A process accelerated in the present pandemic age, which is testing the boundless rise of high-tech firms influence and a renewed public intervention. This review article reconstructs a path of scholars and books designing a multiple critical and «Tech-pessimist» theory concerning the risks of «Soft New Totalitarianism» for western audience democracies.


  • Soft New Totalitarianism
  • Surveillance Capitalism
  • Liberal Democracy
  • Biopower
  • Imaginary


Article first page

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