The subject of the article is the contribution of the University of Athens to the formation of the historical consciousness of the Greek State's citizens, and to their relationship with their historical past. This contribution will be studied throughout a long period of time; from 1837, when the University was founded, until 1974 and the fall of the dictatorial regime (1967-1974). The main assumption in which the article is based is that in each time the formation of university history is highly connected to the institution's operational framework, and to its relationship with political power. The article examines the transition from a world history with enlightening logic to a national scientific history, which from the beginning of the 20th century will be connected with anti-communism and the political divisions, prevalent in Greece until 1974. At the same time the domination of ancient history during the first half of the 19th century will gradually give way to the teaching of a cohesive national history, emphasized on Byzantium and the modern times.