Recent research highlights an association between parenting and development of the executive functions (FE) of the preschoolers. As regards the socio-emotional aspect of parenting, it seems that responsive and mind-minded caregivers exert a significant positive influence. On the contrary, controlling, hostile and rejecting caregivers exert a negative influence. As regards the cognitive aspect of parenting, it seems that stimulation and autonomy support are the most influential variables. Furthermore, recent studies shows that the association between parenting and FE development is mediated by child’s language skills and moderated by individual differences related to the functioning of the HPA axis and temperament. Finally, parenting is a target in recently proposed intervention models, such as the self regulation approach.