Rosanna Ferrara, Sonia Lipparini, Irene C. Mammarella

Diagnostic criteria of Nonverbal learning disabilities: A review

  • Abstract

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Keywords: nonverbal learning disabilities, learning disabilities, visuospatial abilities.

Until now, different and ambiguous criteria for the diagnosis of Nonverbal Learning Disabilities (NLD) have been used. Thus, this disorder is not included in the most important Diagnostic Manuals (DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10). In the present study, we review the literature in order to analyze the diagnostic criteria employed by different research groups. The analysis of the literature showed that a) the discrepancy between either verbal and visuo-spatial intelligence, or verbal comprehension and perceptual organization factors, b) failures in learning achievement in which visuo-spatial abilities are involved (math and writing skills), c) poor visuo-spatial and visuoconstructive abilities, and d) good reading abilities, are the most used criteria.

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