Keywords: European Union, State, Covid-19, Pandemic, Recovery Fund, Golden Power.
The epidemiological emergency has led to a momentous breakdown, which has increased
the complex relations between the European Union and the national States. The tensions
generated by the emergency and the search for solutions to the crisis could however produce
virtuous effects on the integration process. The article aims to analyze these relations
through four in-depth studies: the European response to the health emergency; the judgment
of the German constitutional Tribunal on the ECB’s monetary policy; the identification
by the European institutions of appropriate measures for economic recovery; above all,
the exponential growth of the role of the “Customs Stateµ, through the tool of the golden
powers. The result is a composite picture, which could lead to an acceleration of the process
of European integration or to an involution of such process.