The Use of Gold and Silver in Babylonia during the First Millennium BCE
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The essay is focused on the social and economic uses of precious metals in Mesopotamia in the Neo-Babylonian and Achaemenid periods. From the Neo-Babylonian period both the temple complexes and the royal court consistently converted surpluses into gold and silver, but the circulation of precious metals is far better documented in Achaemenid times. The indication of the quality of silver by marking bars and jewelry implies an Achaemenid custom of converting revenues in precious metals into luxury articles marked by a certification of the metal's official quality.