Federico Toth

Beyond Bismarck and Beveridge: Seven Healthcare Models

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The article describes 7 different models for financing and delivering health care: 1) direct market; 2) voluntary private insurance; 3) social health insurance; 4) residual programs; 5) compulsory national health insurance; 6) universal single-payer system; 7) national health service. The seven models are presented and compared with reference to the following dimensions: who pays for and who benefits from the system; the number of insurers, and the public or private nature of the coverage scheme; the contribution method; users' freedom of choice; the arrangements between insurers and providers; the role of the State. The typology is applied to 24 OECD countries.


  • Comparative Health Policy
  • Healthcare Financing
  • Healthcare Provision
  • Health Insurance
  • Welfare State Models
  • Classification of Healthcare Systems


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