This article proposes an analysis on Italian interest groups in the agricultural arena, focusing on main aspects of organization, resources, strategies of lobbying. Major premise is that political context and policy dynamics shape the definition of interest and the role of the groups in the policy-making. Therefore first section briefly outlines the evolution and changes of the largest farmer organizations (Coldiretti, Confagricoltura and CIA) and the start of new interest groups in recent decades. The following sections present the results of the empirical research on organizations, resources and lobbying of eight groups considered. The analysis of a sample of decision making related to meaningful issues clearly shows the crucial role of interest groups in agricultural policy.