Anikò Bernàt

Integration Policies Focused on Roma. Policies Applied in Practice in Selected Eu Member States through Comprehensive Programmes

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Roma are the largest and most vulnerable ethnic group in Europe with at least 6 million EU citizens of Roma origin. The vulnerable situation is based on the connected and interrelated disadvantages they experience in the major areas of life: education, housing, healthcare and employment. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the various comprehensive inclusion programmes undertaken in seven EU Member States with significant Roma population (Bulgaria, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Romania, Slovakia and Spain) in the 2000s. The main goal is to understand how in practice the policies of each country affect the Roma, through the different comprehensive programmes implemented in those countries. These programmes can be used as a proxy to assess the government priorities and policy framework within the country, as well as the NGO sector's contribution to the inclusion of the Roma people. In addition, these programmes provide an understanding of what methods can best be used to improve Roma living conditions and Roma integration based on a comprehensive approach, given specific context and issues. A total of 20 programmes are reviewed using information sources that are publicly (and mainly online) available (evaluations, studies, reports, official websites etc.), which is also an important factor as it can be seen as a kind of «experiment», raising the question of whether these programmes pass the test of publicity.


  • Roma
  • Europe
  • Comprehensive Programmes
  • Social Inclusion
  • Vulnerability


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