The idea of an economic role of cultural structures and events is now little disputed. It constitutes a contribution for the local economy, particularly in terms of employment and income. Nevertheless, several doubts or discussions about this type of assessment can be issued. From a methodological point of view, the emphasis is placed on the calculation of an appropriate multiplier and the difficulties in separating the local and not local visitors. From a cultural policy point of view, some authors underline the danger of focusing only on economic benefits of an event or a cultural property. Would it not make more sense to combine an economic impact study with a contingent evaluation in order to integrate market benefits and nonmarket cultural added value ? The objective of this evaluation is to assess whether individuals perceive benefits of a cultural good or service, to derive its true economic value. This paper is based, beyond a review of the literature of political and economic culture, on a study on the economic impact of the heritage in a French region: it allows to present the challenges of such an approach, but also to assess its limits and risks.