European scientific parks: limits and perspectives
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Since the early 80s, the diffusion of scientific and technological parks began also in Europe. They have gradually assumed the role of catalysts for the local economic development through technology transfer programs. The paper presents an analytical framework of the experiences of science parks established in the main European countries: Germany, France, UK and Spain. Specifically, the origin of these structures, their typology and evolution, and the results obtained in terms of territorial innovation are highlighted. The author also made use of the results (updated as necessary) of two specific research conducted respectively by the Association of British Science Parks (UKSPA) and by the Spanish Association (APTE).