Gérard Gonzalez

The notion of «living together» in the freedom of religion case law of the European Court of human rights

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Protecting the notion of «living together» is a legitimate though controversial goal of state regulation of the freedom to manifest religion in public space. It appeared explicitly for the first time in the judgment SAS v. France. «Living together» is, however, a component of «democratic society» based on principles of pluralism and tolerance which are clearly if implicitly present in the Court's case law in a much more constructive manner then in the SAS judgment. This contribution analyses the development of this notion in the case-law of the European Court of Human Rights.


  • Living Together
  • Religious Freedom
  • Public Space
  • Democratic Society
  • Pluralism


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