Silvia Baldassarre

Brief reflections starting from Dante’s theory: the ‘two suns’ are, each in their own order, independent and sovereign. Distinction as a guarantee of equality of ‘liquid identities’

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The «two suns theory» set out by Dante was a medieval political conception founded on the mutual autonomy of the imperial and papal authorities. The autonomy between the two spheres, heretical theory for the time, 700 years later is the basis, in many modern democracies, of the principle of distinction between the spiritual and the state order. Dante’s theory, extremely current, offers an opportunity to reflect today on the value of the distinction of orders and the principle of secularism, guarantees of equality in the society of «liquid identities».


  • Secularism
  • Liquid modernity
  • Identity
  • Religious beliefs
  • Human Rights


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