The development gap between the regions of South and Central-North Italy has increased with the deepening of international economic integration, especially in the last years of global economic crisis. In the South of the Country, characterized by the same structural problems of our nation but in a deeper way, companies have faced the exacerbation of the competitive environment without the support of an effective regional policy. The lower entrepreneurial skills in associating innovation and internationalization and a context less ready to receive external stimuli are the main explanatory factors of the falling back of southern economy. The patterns of export specialisation reflect the dualism of the Italian economy, given the prevailing specialisation of southern exports in products lowly skilled-labour-intensive. However, in South Italy the connection between the characteristics of the model of export specialisation and the presence of large outer companies - a legacy of past regional policies - is significant. They provide an important contribution to the economic competitiveness of this territory, since they belong especially to segments highly human-capital-intensive.