This essay is concerned with philosophy in Naples in the period spanning from the late thirties up to the beginning of the eighties. First it considers the last years of Croce's activity and the influence of the "crocianesimo". Subsequently it focuses on the reconstruction of the philosophical studies at the faculty of letters and philosophy. Antonio Aliotta's teachings were predominant until the very end of the forties. His "experimentalism" was characterised by an opening towards scientific languages and non-idealistic currents of thought. Following an interlude of "provincialistic" withdrawal, since the late sixties there has been a revival due to Aldo Masullo's phenomenological researches, as well as to Pietro Piovani and Fulvio Tessitore's critico-problematical historicism.