Informations and abstract
Keywords: European Cultural Heritage; Economic Dimension; Social Dimension; Cultural and Creative Industry.
The paper aims at comparing the meaning of "economic dimension" of cultural heritage in the Italian and in the European legal framework. In the Italian framework the economic dimension deals mainly with public-private interactions to provide services concerning the cultural assets. On the other side, due to the economic crisis in recent years EU policies in the field of culture shift from cultural diversity and inter-cultural dialogue to industry and investment. Culture has been perceived as a key driver to growth and job creation. To encourage the economic development, the EU resorts to a variety of funding tools and soft law instruments, as the Cultural Open Method of Coordination. The rationale of those instruments could undermine the Italian Constitutional non-economic and social aims for the protection of cultural heritage. The paper argues that the EU cultural policies involve both non-economic and economic goals. Two examples are discussed: the Cultural and Creative Cities Monitor, a new Composite Indicator to track and assess data on culture; and the so-called Smart Specialisation Strategy on creative and cultural industries, introducing a conditionality clause for structural fund attribution. The conclusion is that the EU cultural policy does not oppose per se Constitutional principles. But the administrative nature of EU instruments often hides political choices, removing public debate and avoiding democratic control.