Although proved by experience, the relationship between land use planning and cultural heritage is not easy to specify. Its scrutiny meets with even more difficulties when local governments are involved. Lacking appropriate rules on it and given the wide range of interests that land use planning encompasses, this essay analyses the relationship by looking at the two cultural heritage fundamental needs, so recognized by the Italian Constitution too: preservation and enhancement. Each of them results in a different relationship between cultural heritage and land use planning. While cultural heritage preservation always prevails in all the relationships and gives Central Government a leading role, cultural heritage enhancement allows different scenarios, although all the possibile relationships with land use planning can turn out to be difficult because of the uncertainties that surround what enhancement is, how it has to be fulfilled and by which level of government.