The new organizational models inside the Italian companies, as the World Class Manufacturing adopted by the fiat group, constitute the major challenge for all actors. The research promoted by fim-cisl gives some evidence about different positive outcomes: the increase in productivity as in the quality of work. But that shows also new problems and critical points that need to be addressed with innovative solutions. In this scenario, the collective actors and industrial relations could play a key role in accomplishing and improving this process. An important question involves the growth of workers' participation, with the aim of linking the actual practices of direct and organizational participation to new forms of indirect and strategic participation. The way ahead is that of decentralization in collective bargaining. But decentralization needs to be duly selected and well balanced, in order to increase the commitment of the actors at plant and shop floor level.