Was there something socialist in the country of 'real socialism'? The question of the definition of the political and economic regime of the su has been debated as long as the Soviet Union has lasted: inside the country itself (until political action was allowed) and elsewhere in Europe: the answer might be affirmative (yes, the country was socialist), but in a positive sense (the answer given by the urss) or in a negative one (from the parties of the right). Today it is clear that such a question has no answer and ought to be substituted with another one: " Was there anything socialist in the country of real socialism?" Sure, this question can lead us to a tautologie, if we consider the su socialist, or to another impasse if we are of the opposite opinion: what can we consider as socialist if it has never existed? The article turns around such difficulties, examining from this point of view the social rights, the right to work and firms' functioning.