This paper focuses on the impact made by François-Emmanuel Fodéré's writings on nineteenth-century Italian medical culture, with particular attention to forensic medicine and public health. The first part of this article analyses some scientific and medical journals published in Italy, and shows how Fodéré's works are presented, summarized, and discussed. The second part explores Fodéré's writings translated into Italian, examining the translators' notes, supplements, and comments. The last part of the paper describes some medical and legal treatises that pay attention to or criticize Fodéré's "Les lois éclairées par les sciences physiques ou traité de Médecine Légale et d'hygiène publique" (1798). Lastly, I will argue that the controversial legacy of Fodéré and the «new» legal medicine within the Italian medical culture is closely connected with the Italian political and intellectual history during the nineteenth century.