This article analyses Italian historiography and the memoirs relating to Italian fascist foreign policy. This debate, which had its origin in the studies by Salvemini, presents very conflicting opinions. The central issue is whether or not there was a long-term, coherent fascist planning in international affairs (regardless of fascism's internal phases and particular situations). Even though the availability of new documentation has helped research recently, foreign policy and its interpretation in Italy seem to remain a subject for specialists. Research has failed to disseminate in the country the perception of the extent to which fascism was destabilizing in the international arena; the extent to which fascism challenged the legitimacy of the League of the Nations; and the extent to which war-mongering was ultimately a distinctive element of fascist policy because of ideological necessity.