Keywords: Political Theology, Theology of Liberation, Theology of Secularization, Laity, Secularity.
In the theology of the twentieth century there are two distinct lines of thought that have tried to interpret the relationship between Christian faith and political power. The first one is the one that, starting from the debate on political theology between Schmitt and Peterson, leads to the new political theology of Metz and then to the Latin American liberation theology. The second theorizes secularization as an opportunity for Christian faith and is supported in particular by the theology of the laity of the Second Vatican Council. This second line seems to have historically won out over the first one; but by tending towards the idea of a pure faith that is not compromised with the world, it has left open the task of a transforming presence in the world. In this way the alternative between good and bad power fades away in favor of the alternative between purity and risky commitment.