LULUs Movements in Multilevel Struggles: A Comparison of Four Movements in Italy
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LULUs movements are regaining visibility in the Italian public discourse. While focusing on local issues, they develop multi-level strategies, addressing local, but also national and transnational targets. Developing upon some classical approaches of social movement studies, we aim at explaining the ways in which opportunities are framed at various levels along the policy process. The research is based on a crosscase analysis of four LULU movements: 1) No Tav, against the construction of the high-speed railway line in Val di Susa; 2) No Muos, contrary to the US Navy geosatellite communication system in Niscemi; 3) No Tap, against the construction of the Trans-Adriatic Gas pipeline in San Foca-Melendugno; 4) No Large Ships, adverse to the transit of cruise ships in the Venetian lagoon.