Large cities like London, Stockholm and Milan have adopted traffic policies for their central areas based on charges applying to the inbound car traffic. The paper, after a comparative review of the most significant European experiences, offers an assessment of the effectiveness, in terms of modal shift, and acceptability of the charging measures included in the new "Piano Generale del Traffico Urbano" (Urban Traffic Master Plan) of the city of Rome. The econometric analysis, based on logit models and stated preference data, quantifies the significant modal shift towards powered two-wheelers brought about by charging measures limited to cars. The analysis also provides the desired shift towards public transport that may follow charging measures extended to both cars and powered two-wheelers. The improvement of the metro network is the measure able to improve car users' acceptability.