Informations and abstract
Keywords: municipalities, Italian legislation, political functions.
The model of Unions of Municipalities in Italy was created and regulated in 1990 (article 26, law no. 142/1990). The legislation has undergone several changes in more than twenty years, until the latest "Spending Review 2" (article 19, law no. 135/2012), that defines the new fundamental functions of municipalities and alters the obligations of the municipalities up to 5,000 inhabitants (or 3,000 inhabitants in case of present or past membership in Mountain Communities, not including the islands-municipalities and the municipality of Campione d'Italia) in the field of municipalities associate management. The law requires these kind of municipalities (that already are not part of municipal agreements) to carry out at least three fundamental functions by 1st January 2013 and the remaining six basic functions within 1st January 2014, via a Union of Municipalities or a municipal agreement. In September 2012, there were 371 Unions, with 1.868 member Municipalities (i.e. the 23.1% of the Italian municipalities), of which 75% counted up to 5.000 residents.