The essay describes an empirical survey conducted among doctors employed on dual contracts (as general practitioners or duty doctors) by health unit no. 4 of Cosenza. Comparing two distinct theoretical models - English-style "managed competition" and Swedish-style "public competition" - the study concentrates on two specific areas of competition: the free choice of doctor and place of treatment by patients (public competition) and the introduction of the "general practitioner budget" for local health centres (managed competition). The hypothesis is that the applicability of these theoretical approaches depends mainly on their match with professional perceptions of the competition for "property rights" among health practitioners. These rights are the rules which govern competition for the solution for conflicts over the use of scarce resources. The study highlights the different dimensions perceived in health competition and the most frequent ideal-typical profile of the competitor doctor found among the group of general practitioners interviewed.