Keywords: Constitution; Democracy; Cohesion; Minorities; Human Rights.
The «liquidation» of political theology, which Carl Schmitt ascribed to Erik Peterson, has never been definitive. In fact, in the history of the Italian Republic different phases have been marked by contrasting understandings of the mutual relationships between theology and politics - whether direct or indirect. This also affected the performance of the various democratic models that have been experimented. The dialectic between these different conceptions has facilitated the constitutional compromise and the emergence of proportional parliamentarianism, but it has also contributed to destabilize the majoritarian parliamentary system. In this perspective, the theme of the theological justification of political decision has a broader scope than religious tolerance; it especially touches upon the pre-political and ethical foundations of the democratic State that are essential to ensure its intrinsic, rather than coercive, stability.