In a recent article published in this journal, Henry Hansmann deals with the quality of higher education of the Italian university system. In this paper we reconsider Hansmann's proposals by taking into account the Italian institutional framework and the recent normative innovations. At present, the Ministry no longer has complete control over universities, as a large amount of autonomy has been already granted and the university faculty has a much stronger influence on the governing of individual universities. To complete the process of reform, what is now necessary is to pursue a more resolute deregulation of the sector, to increase the number of institutions, and to re-design the internal decisional structures. The State should act so as to transform State universities into non-profit institutions or even to favour the rise of autonomous regional university systems.