Informations and abstract
Keywords: Electricity; Energy Sources; Renewable Sources; Electricity Market.
The use of renewable sources in electricity production in Italy is now wellestablished while it is taking its first steps in the sectors of transport and production of heat. In the energy sector, with the liberalization of production and the subsequent establishment of a power stock market for the sale, the market has become dynamic and competitive. The production sector is today highly diversified by number, territorial characteristics, size, source. In particular, it was possible to show that each energy source has its specific features that strengthen more and more the principle that there is not an absolute source that replaces fossil sources but that it is useful and necessary to build a mix of alternative sources which, by exploiting the particularities of individual segments and territories, can overcome all the constraints that affect every single source or sector. In any case it is clear that the effect of renewable sources on the electricity bill is very positive, not only in a macro view, where oil imports, foreign dependence, financial expenditure are reduced; but also in micro terms since it was observed that an important part of citizens' savings in electricity bills in recent years is certainly due to the action of renewable sources. In this framework of gradual substitution of fossil fuels with renewable energy sources, a major opportunity for the whole Country and for the South in particular is identified. The South has, in fact, become a net exporter of energy especially to the rest of the Country. The North, on the contrary, although with lower consumption levels, continues to import large amounts of energy. These import flows represent the foremost potential substitute market for productions from the southern territories which have potentials still to a large extent untapped in terms of wind, sun, earth and biomass. This paper aims at providing a summary and is developed through an analysis of the current context of the electricity market and of development trends, starting from the L.D. no. 79/99 (market liberalization), and the impact of renewable sources on prices and mix. It focuses also on the current level of supply of renewable energy for heating use and transport. The paper is completed with an operational proposal for the use of renewable sources for heating purposes.