The difference between vocational education and training policies and economics of education is the matter at issue. There is a gap in Italy between politics - still ruling the vocational training policies - and economic processes. Economy has grown fast while school and education are mostly related to politics. Italian industry faces several educational patterns and a new cultural model is requested. Italian industrial system, based on SMEs, is asking for appropriate vocational training. The latest laws give evidence of an increasing link between educational policy and labour policies. The present government is willing to introduce a new short-term vocational training course, beside the existing long-term high school. This project implies many problems. However, because of the lack of financial support, the use of the golden rule is suggested, in order to distinguish running expenses from investment expenses.