Studies on "territorial pacts" in Italy usually distinguish between two models of implementation of this new policy for local development: the integrative model and the collusive one. In the first kind of pact, private and public actors co-operate to sustain local development through the joint production of collective goods. In the collusive mode, local actors form coalitions with the aim of attracting public resources from the centre, but without an effective project to improve local development. Research carried out in Tuscany confirms that factors such as the strength of public and private actors, the quality of local political culture, and the features of local economy influence the formulation and implementation of territorial pacts. However, the study of territorial pacts in Tuscany suggests a third possibility that could be named "dirigist". In this case, local political actors play a key role in implementing local pacts as an instrument to enhance public investments and infrastructure, but with a weaker role of private collective actors in fostering.