Informations and abstract
The recent resurgence of interest in narcissism has led to the proliferation of self-report measures of the construct. The aim of this review is to evaluate the relation between construct definition and operative definition of narcissism. Same narcissism scales emphasize the narcissistic characteristics of openly displayed grandeur and exhibitionism, others narcissism scales reflect the themes of vulnerability and sensitivity. An interpretation can be derived from the clinical perspective, and involves the distinction between overt and covert forms of narcissism. When it is overt, narcissistic grandiosity leads to a direct expression of exhibitionism, self-importance and preoccupation with receiving attention from others. Covertly narcissistic individuals appear to be hypersensitive, anxious, timid and insecure. Shame primarily accounted for the differences in these styles, correlating negatively with grandiose style, positively with the more vulnerable style. Some authors have suggested that masochism has a narcissistic function and that impaired object relations is a form of narcissistic impairment. The self-steem quality and extreme emotional reactivity seems to be a central element of narcissism. Empirical studies have studied the convergent and divergent validity of narcissism scales by testing this hypothesis. Further research, therefore, is needed and clinicians and researchers schould rely on the use of well validated narcissim instruments.