The study explores the effect of assertiveness on burnout in physicians. 262 italian physicians from the region of Sardinia, filled the SIB-r (Scale for Interpersonal Behavior, short version) and the LBQ (Link Burnout Questionnaire). The impact of assertiveness on burnout was evaluated by means of a structural equation model (SEM). The distress in the expression and management of professional limits has a direct influence on all dimensions of burnout; the discomfort in showing negative feelings affect inversely on relational deterioration. The study suggests that the enhancement of these dimensions of assertiveness through targeted education, supports the prevention of burnout in the physicians.The study suggests that the enhancement (through targeted education) of the assertiveness dimensions inherent in the management and communication of professional limits and the expression of feelings, helps to prevent burnout of physicians and to improve the quality of their communication with patients.