Informations and abstract
Keywords: organ transplantation - allocation - reciprocity - gift theory.
Since its beginning organ transplantation has always faced the same problem: scarcity of organs. Several solutions have been proposed, from mandatory donations to market proposals, each one rising ethical and juridical objections. In our paper we will take into consideration a different approach to solve organ scarcity, namely the allocation issue. We will focus on the so called reciprocity criteria, almost ignored in Italy. Reciprocity criteria introduce an ethical issue in the organ allocation process, that is offering some priority on the available organs if one is prepared to donate organs him/herself. This general principle generates different kinds of models: strong, weak, and intermediate. We will find in the intermediate model the right balance between the necessity to increase organs, give people their fair share and respect their right to health care. Rather than abandoning the concept of gift, introducing reciprocity models in the organ allocation process will help us to recover the true, and almost forgotten meaning of the word «gift».