Keywords: sexual orientation - LGBT - intersectionality - non-discrimination - Europe.
This paper examines a number of aspects of sexual orientation discrimination across Europe. Starting with the supranational level it explores the systems of protection offered against discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation through the European Convention on Human Rights and under the jurisdiction of the European Court of Human Rights. Subsequently it discusses the protection offered under European Union law and more recent attempts by the EU to tackle discrimination upon a broad range of grounds including sexual orientation. The paper also looks at examples of implementation in national jurisdictions, particularly the United Kingdom. The whole draws inevitable comparisons with discrimination based upon sex and transgender status and explores the complex issue of intersectionality.