The essay analyses the Resistance movement in Germany during the Nazi dictatorship, the main opposition groups, their political-cultural backgrounds, and their principal causes. The introduction outlines the main interpretations given to the Resistance movement and its role in post-war German politics. The author then turns to the action of the groups associated with the Communist and Social Democrat parties, and resistance by the Catholic Labour Movement and by members of the trade unions. The essay continues by examining the opposition raised by particular individuals, some of whom nonetheless endorsed Nazi foreign policy, and the resistance arising from conservative traditions. Particular attention is paid to the role in the movement as a whole by the Christian community and, in conclusion, to the resistance raised by members of the German armed forces which culminated in the famous attempt to assassinate the Führer on 20 July 1944.