The 25 July regime crisis and a re-examination of a chivalrous dispute
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This article is based on sources of the Italian Senate Historical Archives. It examines the regime crisis of 25 July 1943 through the chivalrous clash between the Senators Penna and Rotigliano (26 July 1943). The records reveal how the request to summon a plenary session of the Senate - subscribed by 63 Senators between 22 and 24 July - was closely related with the Gran Consiglio endeavours. Indeed, two and a half months earlier Senator Rotigliano had anticipated the same request within the Budget Commission. On that occasion, Rotigliano had re-proposed the national emergency pattern around the Monarchy, recalling the Italian national emergency after Caporetto. He also questioned the Pnf (National Fascist Party) role to the point that Sforza, the national party secretary, reacted by imposing sanctions.