The World War I was an event that brought significant changes in society all over Europe. Even more so for all those new states that were formed and recognised after the Treaty of Versailles, Romania being one of them. A period of continuous reforms followed with respect to every domain, social assistance and welfare included. Before the World War I, the country had no special legislation in relation to orphans of war. The present article argues for an entanglement of actions and initiatives, both foreign and local, that interfered during the military conflict. The text also explores how such a legislation emerged and finally how this category of children was legally defined. The collaboration between different social and political actors, between Western humanitarian missions and the Romanian authorities were the inspirational base and the starting point in the construction of a welfare system for orphans of war.