The cognitive capacities of modern man have been modelled by the interaction between the changes in the brain's physical structure, that have occurred over time, and the environment, including the social sphere. This thesis is broadly shared within the scientific world. At the biological level, modern man seems paradoxically only slightly different from cavemen, but our way of life has changed a lot since that time. One wonders whether the biological evolution will move towards new achievements. Opinions on this point diverge. The cultural evolution does not improve the brain but the capacity to use it. Will this enhance our cognitive skills? Some think of the future acquisitions in the field of neurosciences and the fascinating but alarming progress of bioengineering and genetics. The game is open.